StringTemplate 3.0 Printable Documentation

Credits for StringTemplate

Terence Parr
University of San Francisco
Copyright 2003-2008
(BSD license)

C# version created by Kunle Odutola
Former user (Deleted)
Copyright 2005-2007
(ST# - C# StringTemplate released under BSD License)

Python version created by Marq Kole
marq DOT kole AT xs4all DOT nl
Updated to V3.1 by Benjamin Niemann
pink AT odahoda DOT de
Copyright 2003-2008

Users' Guide Table of Contents

  • See "About this document" below, for important details on the origin of this content, tips on printing etc.
  • Readers' comments are omitted! This "printable" page is composed from the individual topic pages. There may be readers' comments on those pages, which are not incorporated in this composite page.
  • If you landed on this page first: See also the comprehensive Documentation Map

Related material


Alerts to Developers

  • The StringTemplates distribution includes many unit tests that also represent a useful set of examples. The tests are defined in:





  • Please see the Release Notes, changes, and Bugs page
    • These pages generally discuss the Java version of StringTemplate but, some of the information they contain might apply to other implementations.

1. Introduction


Most programs that emit source code or other text output are unstructured blobs of generation logic interspersed with print statements. The primary reason is the lack of suitable tools and formalisms. The proper formalism is that of an output grammar because you are not generating random characters--you are generating sentences in an output language. This is analogous to using a grammar to describe the structure of input sentences. Rather than building a parser by hand, most programmers will use a parser generator. Similarly, we need some form of unparser generator to generate text. The most convenient manifestation of the output grammar is a template engine such as StringTemplate.

A template engine is simply a code generator that emits text using templates, which are really just "documents with holes" in them where you can stick values. StringTemplate breaks up your template into chunks of text and attribute expressions, which are by default enclosed in dollar signs $attribute-expression$ (to make them easy to see in HTML files). StringTemplate ignores everything outside of attribute expressions, treating it as just text to spit out when you call:







For example, the following template has two chunks, a literal and a reference to attribute name:

Hello, $name$

Using templates in code is very easy. Here is the requisite example that prints "Hello, World":


import org.antlr.stringtemplate.*;

StringTemplate hello = new StringTemplate("Hello, $name$");
hello.setAttribute("name", "World");


using Antlr.StringTemplate;

StringTemplate hello = new StringTemplate("Hello, $name$");
hello.SetAttribute("name", "World");


import stringtemplate3

hello = stringtemplate3.StringTemplate("Hello, $name$")
hello["name"] = "World"
print str(hello)

StringTemplate is not a "system" or "engine" or "server"; it is a library with two primary classes of interest: StringTemplate and StringTemplateGroup. You can directly create a StringTemplate in code, you can load a template from a file, and you can load a single file with many templates (a template group file).

Motivation And Philosophy

StringTemplate was born and evolved during the development of The need for such dynamically-generated web pages has led to the development of numerous other template engines in an attempt to make web application development easier, improve flexibility, reduce maintenance costs, and allow parallel code and HTML development. These enticing benefits, which have driven the proliferation of template engines, derive entirely from a single principle: separating the specification of a page's business logic and data computations from the specification of how a page displays such information.

These template engines are in a sense a reaction to the completely entangled specifications encouraged by JSP (Java Server Pages), ASP (Active Server Pages) and, even ASP.NET. With separate encapsulated specifications, template engines promote component reuse, pluggable site "looks", single-points-of-change for common components, and high overall system clarity. In the code generation realm, model-view separation guarantees retargetability.

The normal imperative programming language features like setting variables, loops, arithmetic expressions, arbitrary method calls into the model, etc... are not only unnecessary, but they are very specifically what is wrong with ASP/JSP. Recall that ASP/JSP (and ASP.NET) allow arbitrary code expressions and statements, allowing programmers to incorporate computations and logic in their templates. A quick scan of template engines reveals an unfortunate truth--all but a few are Turing-complete languages just like ASP/JSP/ASP.NET. One can argue that they are worse than ASP/JSP/ASP.NET because they use languages peculiar to that template engine. Many tool builders have clearly lost sight of the original problem we were all trying to solve. We programmers often get caught up in cool implementations, but we should focus on what should be built not what can be built.

The fact that StringTemplate does not allow such things as assignments (no side-effects) should make you suspicious of engines that do allow it. The templates in ANTLR v3's code generator are vastly more complicated than the sort of templates typically used in web pages creation with other template engines yet, there hasn't been a situation where assignments were needed. If your template looks like a program, it probably is--you have totally entangled your model and view.

After examining hundreds of template files that I created over years of (and now in ANTLR v3) development, I found that I needed only the following four basic canonical operations (with some variations):

  • attribute reference; e.g., $phoneNumber$
  • template reference (like #include or macro expansion); e.g., $searchbox()$
  • conditional include of subtemplate (an IF statement); e.g., $if(title)$<title>$title$</title>$endif$
  • template application to list of attributes; e.g., $names:bold()$

where template references can be recursive.

Language theory supports my premise that even a minimal StringTemplate engine with only these features is very powerful--such an engine can generate the context-free languages (see Enforcing Strict Model-View Separation in Template Engines); e.g., most programming languages are context-free as are any XML pages whose form can be expressed with a DTD.

While providing all sorts of dangerous features like assignment that promote the use of computations and logic in templates, many engines miss the key elements. Certain language semantics are absolutely required for generative programming and language translation. One is recursion. A template engine without recursion seems unlikely to be capable of generating recursive output structures such as nested tables or nested code blocks.

Another distinctive StringTemplate language feature lacking in other engines is lazy-evaluation. StringTemplate's attributes are lazily evaluated in the sense that referencing attribute "a" does not actually invoke the data lookup mechanism until the template is asked to render itself to text. Lazy evaluation is surprisingly  useful in both the web and code generation worlds because such order decoupling allows code to set attributes when it is convenient or efficient not necessarily before a template that references those attributes is created. For example, a complicated web page may consist of many nested templates many of which reference $userName$, but the value of userName does not need to be set by the model until right before the entire page is rendered to text via ToString(). You can build up the complicated page, setting attribute values in any convenient order.

StringTemplate implements a "poor man's" form of lazy evaluation by simply requiring that all attributes be computed a priori. That is, all attributes must be computed and pushed into a template before it is written to text; this is the so-called "push method" whereas most template engines use the "pull method". The pull method appears more conventional because programmers mistakenly regard templates as programs, but pulling attributes introduces order-of-computation dependencies. Imagine a simple web page that displays a list of names (using some mythical Java-based template engine notation):

$foreach n in names$
There are $numberNames$ names.

Using the pull method, the reference to names invokes model.getNames(), which presumably loads a list of names from the database. The reference to numberNames invokes model.getNumberNames() which necessarily uses the internal data structure computed by getNames() to compute names.size() or whatever. Now, suppose a designer moves the numberNames reference to the <title> tag, which is before the reference to names in the foreach statement. The names will not yet have been loaded, yielding a null pointer exception at worst or a blank title at best. You have to anticipate these dependencies and have getNumberNames() invoke getNames() because of a change in the template.

I'm stunned that other template engine authors with whom I've spoken think this is ok. Any time I can get the computer to do something automatically for me that removes an entire class of programming errors, I'll take it! Automatic garbage collection is the obvious analogy here.

The pull method requires that programmers do a topological sort in their minds anticipating any order that a programmer or designer could induce. To ensure attribute computation safety (i.e., avoid hidden dependency landmines), I have shown trivially in my academic paper that pull reduces to push in the worst case. With a complicated mesh of templates, you will miss a dependency, thus, creating a really nasty, difficult-to-find bug.

StringTemplate mission

When developing StringTemplate, I recalled Frederick Brook's book, "Mythical Man Month", where he identified conceptual integrity as a crucial product ingredient. For example, in UNIX everything is a stream. My concept, if you will, is strict model-view separation. My mission statement is therefore:

"StringTemplate shall be as simple, consistent, and powerful as possible without sacrificing strict model-view separation."

I ruthlessly evaluate all potential features and functionality against this standard. Over the years, however, I have made certain concessions to practicality that one could consider as infringing ever-so-slightly into potential model-view entanglement. That said, StringTemplate still seems to enforce separation while providing excellent functionality.

I let my needs dictate the language and tool feature set. The tool evolved as my needs evolved. I have done almost no feature "backtracking". Further, I have worked really hard to make this little language self-consistent and consistent with existing syntax/metaphors from other languages. There are very few special cases and attribute/template scoping rules make a lot of sense even if they are unfamiliar or strange at first glance. Everything in the language exists to solve a very real need.

StringTemplate language flavor

Just so you know, I've never been a big fan of functional languages and I laughed really hard when I realized (while writing the academic paper) that I had implemented a functional language. The nature of the problem simply dictated a particular solution. We are generating sentences in an output language so we should use something akin to a grammar. Output grammars are inconvenient so tool builders created template engines. Restricted template engines that enforce the universally-agreed-upon goal of strict model-view separation also look remarkably like output grammars as I have shown. So, the very nature of the language generation problem dictates the solution: a template engine that is restricted to support a mutually-recursive set of templates with side-effect-free and order-independent attribute references.

2. StringTemplate cheat sheet

Expression elements

See Expressions




Evaluates to the value of attribute.ToString() if it exists else empty string.

<i>, <i0>

The iteration number indexed from one and from zero, respectively, when referenced within a template being applied to an attribute or attributes.


Looks for property of attribute as a property (C#), then accessor methods like getProperty() or isProperty(). If that fails, StringTemplate looks for a raw field of the attribute called property. Evaluates to the empty string if no such property is found.


Indirect property lookup. Same as except use the value of expr as the property_ name. Evaluates to the empty string if no such property is found.


Concatenation of ToString() invoked on each element. If multi-valued-attribute is missing his evaluates to the empty string.

<multi-valued-attribute; separator=expr>

Concatenation of ToString() invoked on each element separated by expr.

<[mine, yours]>

Creates a new multi-valued attribute (a list) with elements of mine first then all of yours.


Include template. The argument-list is a list of attribute assignments where each assignment is of the form arg-of-template=expr where expr is evaluated in the context of the surrounding template
not of the invoked template.


Include template whose name is computed via expr. The argument-list is a list of attribute assignments where each assignment is of the form attribute=expr. Example $(whichFormat)()$ looks up whichFormat's value and uses that as template name. Can also apply an indirect template to an attribute.


Apply template to attribute. The optional argument-list is evaluated before application so that you can set attributes referenced within template. The default attribute it is set to the value of attribute. If attribute is multi-valued, then it is set to each element in turn and template is invoked n times where n is the number of values in attribute. Example: $name:bold() applies bold() to name's value.


Apply a template, whose name is computed from expr, to each value of attribute. Example $data:(name)()$ looks up name's value and uses that as template name to apply to data.

<attribute:t1(argument-list): ... :tN(argument-list)>

Apply multiple templates in order from left to right. The result of a template application upon a multi-valued attribute is another multi-valued attribute. The overall expression evaluates to the concatenation of all elements of the final multi-valued attribute resulting from templateN's application.


Apply an anonymous template to each element of attribute. The iterated it atribute is set automatically.

<attribute:{argument-name_ | _anonymous-template}>

Apply an anonymous template to each element of attribute. Set the argument-name to the iterated value and also set it.

<a1,a2,...,aN:{argument-list_ | _anonymous-template}>

Parallel list iteration. March through the values of the attributes a1..aN, setting the values to the arguments in argument-list in the same order. Apply the anonymous template. There is no defined it value unless inherited from an enclosing scope.


Apply an alternating list of templates to the elements of attribute. The template names may include argument lists.


The first or only element of attr. You can combine operations to say things like first(rest(names)) to get second element.


The last or only element of attr.


All but the first element of attr. Returns nothing if $attr$ a single valued.


returns all but last element


Returns an iterator that skips any null values in $attr$. strip(x)
=x when x is a single-valued attribute.


Return an integer indicating how many elements in length $attr$ is. Single valued attributes return 1. Strings are not special; i.e., length("foo") is 1 meaning "1 attribute". Nulls are counted in lists so a list of 300 nulls is length 300. If you don't want to count nulls, use length(strip(list)).

\$ or \<

escaped delimiter prevents $ or < from starting an attribute expression and results in that single character.

<\ >, <\n>, <\t>, <\r>

special character(s): space, newline, tab, carriage return. Can have multiple in single <...> expression.


Unicode character(s). Can have multiple in single <...> expression.

<! comment !>, $! comment !$

Comments, ignored by StringTemplate.


See Conditionally included subtemplates




If attribute has a value or is a boolean object that evaluates to true, include subtemplate else include subtemplate2. These conditionals may be nested.


First attribute that has a value or is a boolean object that evaluates to true, include that subtemplate. These conditionals may be nested.


If attribute has no value or is a bool object that evaluates to false, include subtemplate. These conditionals may be nested.


See Group Files

group name
t1(args) ::= "template1"
t2(args) ::= <<


group name implements interfacename;

where the interface is defined via:

interface interfacename;

Reserved words

Don't use these as attribute names or template names:





3. Defining Templates

Defining Templates

Creating Templates With Code

Here is a simple example that creates and uses a template on the fly:


StringTemplate query = new StringTemplate("SELECT $column$ FROM $table$;");
query.setAttribute("column", "name");
query.setAttribute("table", "User");


StringTemplate query = new StringTemplate("SELECT $column$ FROM $table$;");
query.SetAttribute("column", "name");
query.SetAttribute("table", "User");


query = stringtemplate3.StringTemplate("SELECT $column$ FROM $table$;")
query["column"] = "name"
query["table"] = "User"

where StringTemplate considers anything in $...$ to be something it needs to pay attention to. By setting attributes, you are "pushing" values into the template for use when the template is printed out. The attribute values are set by referencing their names. Invoking toString() on query would yield

SELECT name FROM User;

You can set an attribute multiple times, which simply means that the attribute is multi-valued. For example, adding another value to the attribute named column as shown below makes the attribute multi-valued:


StringTemplate query = new StringTemplate("SELECT $column$ FROM $table$;");
query.setAttribute("column", "name");
query.setAttribute("column", "email");
query.setAttribute("table", "User");


StringTemplate query = new StringTemplate("SELECT $column$ FROM $table$;");
query.SetAttribute("column", "name");
query.SetAttribute("column", "email");
query.SetAttribute("table", "User");


query = stringtemplate3.StringTemplate("SELECT $column$ FROM $table$;")
query["column"] = "name"
query["column"] = "email"
query["table"] = "User"

Invoking toString() on query would now yield

SELECT nameemail FROM User;

Ooops...there is no separator between the multiple values. If you want a comma, say, between the column names, then change the template to record that formatting information:


StringTemplate query = new StringTemplate("SELECT $column; separator=\",\"$ FROM $table$;");
query.setAttribute("column", "name");
query.setAttribute("column", "email");
query.setAttribute("table", "User");


StringTemplate query = new StringTemplate("SELECT $column; separator=\",\"$ FROM $table$;");
query.SetAttribute("column", "name");
query.SetAttribute("column", "email");
query.SetAttribute("table", "User");


query = stringtemplate3.StringTemplate("SELECT $column; separator=\",\"$ FROM $table$;")
query["column"] = "name"
query["column"] = "email"
query["table"] = "User"

Note that the right-hand-side of the separator specification in this case is a string literal; therefore, we have escaped the double-quotes as the template is specified in a string. In general, the right-hand-side can be any attribute expression. Invoking toString() on query would now yield

SELECT name,email FROM User;

Attributes can be any object at all. StringTemplate calls toString() on each object as it writes the template out. The separator is not used unless the attribute is multi-valued.

Loading Templates From Files

The rest of this article discusses StringTemplateGroups, but only covers the case of groups of individual template files. You may also be interested in string template group files (xxx.stg) which provide more functionality for many scenarios. See separate Group Files article.

To load a template from the disk you must use a StringTemplateGroup that will manage all the templates you load, caching them so you do not waste time talking to the disk for each template fetch request (you can change it to not cache; see below). You may have multiple template groups. Here is a simple example that loads the previous SQL template from a file /tmp/

SELECT $column; separator=","$ FROM $table$;

The code below creates a StringTemplateGroup called myGroup rooted at /tmp so that requests for template theQuery forces a load of file /tmp/


StringTemplateGroup group = new StringTemplateGroup("myGroup", "/tmp");
StringTemplate query = group.getInstanceOf("theQuery");
query.setAttribute("column", "name");
query.setAttribute("column", "email");
query.setAttribute("table", "User");


StringTemplateGroup group = new StringTemplateGroup("myGroup", "/tmp");
StringTemplate query = group.GetInstanceOf("theQuery");
query.SetAttribute("column", "name");
query.SetAttribute("column", "email");
query.SetAttribute("table", "User");


group = stringtemplate3.StringTemplateGroup("myGroup", "/tmp")
query = group.getInstanceOf("theQuery")
query["column"] = "name"
query["column"] = "email"
query["table"] = "User"

If you have a directory hierarchy of templates such as file /tmp/jguru/, you would reference them relative to the root; in this case, you would ask for template jguru/bullet().


StringTemplate strips whitespace from the front and back of all loaded template files. You can add, for example, <\n> at the end of the file to get an extra carriage return.

Loading Templates relative to an implementation specific location


Loading Templates from CLASSPATH

When deploying applications or providing a library for use by other programmers, you will not know where your templates files live specifically on the disk. You will, however, know relative to the classpath where your templates reside. For example, if your code is in package com.mycompany.server you might put your templates in a templates subdirectory of server. If you do not specify an absolute directory with the StringTemplateGroup constructor, future loads via that group will happen relative to the CLASSPATH. For example, to load template file you would do the following:

// Look for templates in CLASSPATH as resources
StringTemplateGroup group = new StringTemplateGroup("mygroup");
StringTemplate st = group.getInstanceOf("com/mycompany/server/templates/page");


Loading Templates relative to the Assembly's Location

When deploying applications or providing a library for use by other programmers, you will not know in advance where your templates files will be located live in the file system. You will, however, often know the location of your templates relative to the where the application assembly is deployed. For example, if your code is in the an assembly named com.mycompany.server.exe you might put your templates in a templates subdirectory of the directory containing com.mycompany.server.exe. If you do not specify an absolute directory with the StringTemplateGroup constructor, future loads via that group will happen relative to the location of com.mycompany.server.exe. For example, to load template file you would do the following:

// Look for templates relative to assembly location
StringTemplateGroup group = new StringTemplateGroup("mygroup", (string)null);
StringTemplate st = group.GetInstanceOf("templates/page");


Loading Templates from sys.path

FIXME: there was an implementation, test&document it!

If references, say, searchbox template, it must be fully qualified as:
<font size=2>SEARCH</font>: $com/mycompany/server/templates/page/searchbox()$

This is inconvenient and ST may add the invoking template's path prefix automatically in the future.


By default templates are loaded from disk just once. During development, however, it is convenient to turn caching off. Also, you may want to turn off caching so that you can quickly update a running site. You can set a simple refresh interval using StringTemplateGroup.setRefreshInterval(...). When the interval is reached, all templates are thrown out. Set interval to 0 to refresh constantly (no caching). Set the interval to a huge number like Integer.MAX_INT or Int32.MaxValue to have no refreshing at all.


StringTemplateGroup group = new StringTemplateGroup("myGroup", "/tmp");
group.setRefreshInterval(0);  // no caching
group.setRefreshInterval(Integer.MAX_INT);  // no refreshing


The C# version of StringTemplate does not implement the StringGroup.setRefreshInterval() method. Template files that have been successfully opened are monitored using FileSystemWatcher.


group = stringtemplate3.StringTemplateGroup("myGroup", "/tmp")
group.refreshInterval = 0  # no caching
group.refreshInterval = sys.maxint # no refreshing

4. Setting the expression delimiters

By default, expressions in a template are delimited by dollar signs: $...$. This works great for the most common case of HTML generation because the attribute expressions are clearly highlighted in the text. Sometimes, with other formats like SQL statement generation, you may want to change the template expression delimiters to avoid a conflict and to make the expressions stand out.

The start and stop strings are limited to either $...$ or <...> (unless you build your own lexical analyzer to break apart templates into chunks). group file templates use <...> delimiters by default (in v2.2 $...$ was the default delimiter). Templates created with the StringTemplate object constructor still use $...$ by default.

To specify that StringTemplate should use a specific delimiter you must create a StringTemplateGroup:


StringTemplateGroup group =
  new StringTemplateGroup("sqlstuff", "/tmp", AngleBracketTemplateLexer.class);
StringTemplate query =
  new StringTemplate(group, "SELECT <column> FROM <table>;");
query.setAttribute("column", "name");
query.setAttribute("table", "User");


StringTemplateGroup group =
     new StringTemplateGroup("sqlstuff", "/tmp", typeof(AngleBracketTemplateLexer));
StringTemplate query = new StringTemplate(group, "SELECT <column> FROM <table>;");
query.SetAttribute("column", "name");
query.SetAttribute("table", "User");


group = stringtemplate3.StringTemplateGroup("sqlstuff", "/tmp", lexer="angle-bracket")
query = stringtemplate3.StringTemplate("SELECT <column> FROM <table>;", group=group)
query["column"] = "name"
query["table"] = "User"

Python accepts either a antlr.CharScanner class (stringtemplate3.language.DefaultTemplateLexer.Lexer, stringtemplate3.language.AngleBracketTemplateLexer.Lexer or your own implementation) or the string literals 'default' and 'angle-bracket'. Also note the use of the keyword argument lexer.

All templates created through the group or in anyway associated with the group will assume your the angle bracket delimiters. It's smart to be consistent across all files of similar type such as "all HTML templates use $...$" and "all SQL templates use <...>".

5. Group Files

Template Group Files

Overview of Template Groups

StringTemplate 2.0 introduced the notion of a template group file that has two main attractions. First, it allows you to define lots of small templates more conveniently because they may all be defined within a single file. Second, (unlike in a simple template file) you may specify formal template arguments that help StringTemplate detect errors (such as setting unknown attributes) and make the templates easier to read. Here is a sample group file with two templates, vardef and method, that could be used to generate C files:

group simple;

vardef(type,name) ::= "<type> <name>;"

method(type,name,args) ::= <<
<type> <name>(<args; separator=",">) {
  <statements; separator="\n">

All groups use <...> expression  delimiters by default. Single line templates are enclosed in double quotes while multi-line templates are enclosed in double angle-brackets. Every template must define arguments even if the formal argument list is blank.

Using the templates from a template group file (or from a string) is straightforward. The StringTemplateGroup class has a number of constructors, one of which allows you to pass in a string or file or whatever:


String templates = "group simple; vardef(type,name) ..."; // templates from above
// Use the constructor that accepts a Reader
StringTemplateGroup group = new StringTemplateGroup(new StringReader(templates));
StringTemplate t = group.getInstanceOf("vardef");
t.setAttribute("type", "int");
t.setAttribute("name", "foo");


String templates = "group simple; vardef(type,name) ..."; // templates from above
// Use the constructor that accepts a System.IO.TextReader
StringTemplateGroup group = new StringTemplateGroup(new StringReader(templates));
StringTemplate t = group.GetInstanceOf("vardef");
t.SetAttribute("type", "int");
t.SetAttribute("name", "foo");


templates = "group simple; vardef(type,name) ..."; # templates from above
# Use the constructor that accepts a Reader
group = stringtemplate3.StringTemplateGroup(file=StringIO(templates))
t = group.getInstanceOf("vardef")
t["type"] = "int"
t["name"] = "foo"
print str(t)

The output would be: "int foo;".

Supergroups and interfaces

Template groups may derive from other template groups, thus inheriting all of the features (templates and maps) from the supergroup. Group inheritance provides an appropriate model whereby, for example, a variation on a code generation target may be defined by describing how it differs from a previously defined target. Considering Java 1.4 versus 1.5, a Java1_5 group could specify how to alter the main Java (1.4) group templates in order to use generics and enumerated types.

Group inheritance would not yield its full potential without template polymorphism. A parser template instantiated via the Java1_5 group should always look for templates in Java1_5 rather than the Java supergroup even though that template is lexically defined within group Java.

Templates in a subgroup override same-named templates in a supergroup just as in class inheritance in other languages. StringTemplate does not support overloaded templates so group inheritance does not take formal arguments into consideration.

The supergroup for a group may be changed dynamically using the setSuperGroup() method. If, however, a group must always derive from another group, use the following syntax in the descendant template group file:

group mygroup : supergroup;

If your group must satisfy a particular interface (see Group interfaces) then use the following syntax:

group mygroup implements anInterface, andAnotherInterface;

or if the group inherits from a supergroup and implements an interface:

group mygroup : supergroup implements anInterface;


There are situations where you need to translate a string in one language to a string in another language. For example, you might want to translate integer to int when translating Pascal to C. You could pass a Map or IDictionary (e.g. hashtable) from the model into the templates, but then you have output literals in your model!  The StringTemplate solution is to support a mapping feature. For example, here is a map defined in a template group file, using which ANTLR v3 knows how to initialize local variables to their default values:

typeInitMap ::= [
        default:"null" // anything other than an atomic type

To use the map in a template, refer to it as you would an attribute. Continuing the example, <> returns "0" from the map. If your type name is an attribute not a constant like int, then use an indirect field access: <typeInitMap.(typeName)>.

Map strings are actually templates that can refer to attributes that will become visible via dynamic scoping of attributes once the map entry has been embedded within a template. This is useful for referencing things like attribute username from within map values. That attribute will eventually become visible when the map a value is embedded within, say, a page template.

Large strings, such as those with newlines, can be specified with the usual large template delimiters from the group file format: <<...>>.

The default and other mappings can have empty values (implying no value). if no key is matched by the map then an empty value is returned, which is the same as using "default :" explicitly. The keyword key is available if you would like to refer to the key that maps to this value. This is particularly useful if you would like to filter certain words but otherwise leave a value unchanged; use default : key to return the key unmolested if it is not found in the map.

Maps are defined in the group's scope and are visible if no attribute hides them. For example, if you define a formal argument called typeInitMap in template foo then foo cannot see the map defined in the group (though you could pass it in as another parameter). If a name is not an attribute and it's not in the group's maps table, then the super group is consulted etc... You may not redefine a map and it may not have the same name as a template in that group. The default value is used if you use a key as a property that doesn't exist. For example <> returns "null". The default clause must be at the end of the map.

You'll note that the square brackets will denote data structure in other areas too such as [a,b,c,...] which makes a singe multi-valued attribute out of other attributes so you can iterate across them.

Template Group file format

    :   "group" ID ( ':' ID  )?  ( "implements" ID (',' ID  )* )? ';'
        ( template | mapdef )+

    :   (   '@' ID '.' ID
        |   ID
        '(' (args)? ')' "::="
        (   STRING      // "..."
        |   BIGSTRING   // <<...>>
    |   ID "::=" ID     // alias one template to another

args:   arg ( ',' arg )*

arg :   ID '=' STRING               // x="..."
    |   ID '=' ANONYMOUS_TEMPLATE   // x={...}
    |   ID

    :   ID "::=" map

map :   '['
            keyValuePair (',' keyValuePair)*
            ( ',' "default" ':' keyValue )?

    :   STRING ':' keyValue

    |   STRING
    |   "key"

Both /* ... */ and single-line // ... comments are allowed outside of templates. Inside templates, you must use <!...!>.

An aside: All along, during my website construction days, I kept in mind that any text output follows a format and, thus, output sentences conform to a language. Consequently, a grammar should describe the output rather than a bunch of ad hoc print statements in code. This helped me formalize the study of templates because I could compare templates (output grammars) to well established ideas from formal language theory and context-free grammars. This allowed me to show, among other things, that StringTemplate can easily generate any document describable with an XML DTD even though it is deliberately limited. The group file format should look very much like a grammar to you.

Scoping rules and attribute look-up

See the scoping rules section for information on how formal arguments affect attribute look up.

Group files have a .stg file extension.

Template Group loaders

When a template group file derives from another group, StringTemplate has to know how to load that group and its supergroups. StringTemplate 2.3 introduces the StringTemplateGroupLoader interface to describe objects that know how to load groups and interfaces.


public interface StringTemplateGroupLoader {
    /** Load the group called groupName from somewhere.  Return null
     *  if no group is found.
    public StringTemplateGroup loadGroup(String groupName);

    /** Load a group with a specified superGroup.  Groups with
     *  region definitions must know their supergroup to find templates
     *  during parsing.
    public StringTemplateGroup loadGroup(String groupName,
                                         StringTemplateGroup superGroup);

    /** Load the interface called interfaceName from somewhere.  Return null
     *  if no interface is found.
    public StringTemplateGroupInterface loadInterface(String interfaceName);


public interface IStringTemplateGroupLoader
    /// <summary>
    /// Loads the named StringTemplateGroup instance from somewhere.
    /// </summary>
    StringTemplateGroup LoadGroup(string groupName);

    /// <summary>
    /// Loads the named StringTemplateGroup instance with the specified supergroup from somewhere.
    /// </summary>
    StringTemplateGroup LoadGroup(string groupName, StringTemplateGroup superGroup);

    /// <summary>
    /// Loads the named StringTemplateGroup instance with the specified supergroup from somewhere.
    /// Configure to use lexer of specified type.
    /// </summary>
    StringTemplateGroup LoadGroup(string groupName, StringTemplateGroup superGroup, Type lexer);

    /// <summary>
    /// Loads the named StringTemplateGroupInterface instance from somewhere.
    /// </summary>
    StringTemplateGroupInterface LoadInterface(string interfaceName);


class StringTemplateGroupLoader(object):
    def loadGroup(self, groupName, superGroup=None):
        raise NotImplementedError

    def loadInterface(self, interfaceName):
        raise NotImplementedError

By default, there are two implementations: PathGroupLoader and CommonGroupLoader. PathGroupLoader is a simple loader that looks only in the directory(ies) you specify in the ctor (Note that you can specify the char encoding). CommonGroupLoader, on the other hand, is a loader that also looks in the directory(ies) you specify in the ctor, but it uses the classpath rather than absolute dirs so it can be used when the ST application is jar'd up. Use Static method:





to specify a loader. For example, here is how ANTLR loads its templates:

// get a group loader containing main templates dir and target subdir
String templateDirs =
StringTemplateGroupLoader loader =
    new CommonGroupLoader(templateDirs.toString(),

// first load main language template
StringTemplateGroup coreTemplates =

In order to use the group file format inheritance specifier, group sub : sup, you must specify a loader.

Formal argument default values

Sometimes it is convenient to have default values for formal arguments that are used when no value is set by the model. For example, when generating a parser in Java from ANTLR, I want the super class of the generated object to be Parser unless the ANTLR user uses an option to set the super class to some custom class. For example, here is a partial parser template definition:

parser(name, rules, superClass="Parser") ::= ...

Any argument may be given a default value by following the name with an equals sign and a string or an anonymous template.

Formal argument error handling

When using a group file format to specify templates, you must specify the formal arguments for that template. If you try to set an attribute via setAttribute that is not specifically formally defined in that template, you will get the following exception:







If you reference an attribute that is not formally defined in that template or any enclosing template, you also get the same exception.

Newline handling

The first newline following the << in a template definition is ignored as it is usually used just to get the first line of text for the template at the start of a line. In other words, if you want to have a blank line at the start of your template, use:

foo() ::= <<

2nd line is not blank, but first is


foo() ::= <<<\n>
same as before; newline then this line

The last newline before the >> is also ignored and is not included in the output. To add a final newline, add an extra line or <\n> before the >>:

foo() ::= <<



foo() ::= <<

The following template:

foo() ::= <<

on the other hand, is identical to

foo() ::= "rodent"

6. Group interfaces

Group Interfaces

To promote retargetable code generators, ST supports interface implementation a la Java interfaces where a template group that implements an interface must implement all templates in the interface and with the proper argument lists. The interface is the published, executable documentation for building back-ends for the code generator and has proven to be an excellent way to inform programmers responsible for the various targets of changes to the requirements.

The developers of the ANTLR code generation targets always have the same two questions: Initially they ask, "What is the set of templates I have to define for my target?'' and then, during development, they ask, "Has a change to the code generation logic forced any changes to the requirements of my template library?"

Originally, the answer to the first question involved abstracting the list of templates and their formal arguments from the existing Java target. The answer to the second question involved using a difference tool to point out changes in the Java target from repository check-in to check-in. Without a way to formally notify target developers and to automatically catch logic-template mismatches, bugs creep in that become apparent only when the stale template definitions are exercised by the code generator. This situation is analogous to programs in dynamically typed languages like Python where method signature changes can leave landmines in unexercised code. In short, there were no good answers.

ST now supports group interfaces that describe a collection of template signatures, names and formal arguments, in a manner analogous to Java interfaces. Interfaces clearly identify the set of all templates that a target must define as well as the attributes they operate on. The first question regarding the required set of templates now has a good answer.

Interfaces also provide a form of type safety whereby a target is examined upon code generator startup to see that it satisfies the interface. Here is a piece of the ANTLR main target interface:

interface ANTLRCore;
parser(name, scopes, tokens, tokenNames, rules,
       numRules, cyclicDFAs, bitsets, ASTLabelType,
       superClass, labelType, members);
rule(ruleName, ruleDescriptor, block, emptyRule,
       description, exceptions);
/** What file extension to use; e.g., ".java" */

All of the various targets then implement the interface; e.g.,

group Java implements ANTLRCore;

The code generator, which loads target templates, notifies developers of any inconsistencies immediately upon startup effectively answering the second question regarding notification of template library changes. Group interfaces provide excellent documentation, promote consistency, and reduce hidden bugs.

Interfaces look exactly like groups except that they don't have template implementations for the template declarations although they must have the complete parameter list. Further, a template may be defined as optional using the optional keyword:

optional headerFile(actionScope, actions, docComment, recognizer, ...);

7. Template inheritance

Template Group inheritance overview

A template group may derive from other template groups, thus inheriting all of the features (templates and maps) from the supergroup. The descendant template group can then add more templates and maps, override inherited templates and maps or modify inherited templates in a finer-grained manner using the template regions feature.

This article probably should be merged in with Group Files. Also, on some points it seemed out-of-date - I've made annotations in red where I think this occurs. - Graham Wideman 2009-05-21

Template Group inheritance

Recall that a StringTemplateGroup is a collection of related templates such as all templates associated with the look of a web site. If you want to design a second similar look for that site (such as for premium users), you don't really want to cut-n-paste the original template files for use in the new look. Subsequent changes to the original template files would not be propagated to the new look.

Just like you would do with a class definition in other languages, a template group may inherit features (templates and maps) from another template group, the supergroup. If template t is not found in a group, it is looked up in the supergroup, if present. This works regardless of whether you use a group file format or load templates from the disk via a StringTemplateGroup object. Currently you cannot use the group file syntax to specify a supergroup. I am investigating how this should work. In the meantime, you must explicitly set the supergroup in code.

I think this is now handled by the syntax discussed in Group Files. - GW

group mygroup : supergroup;

From the unit tests, here is a simple inheritance of a template, bold:


StringTemplateGroup supergroup = new StringTemplateGroup("super");
StringTemplateGroup subgroup = new StringTemplateGroup("sub");
supergroup.defineTemplate("bold", "<b>$it$</b>");
StringTemplate st = new StringTemplate(subgroup, "$name:bold()$");
st.setAttribute("name", "Terence");
String expecting = "<b>Terence</b>";


StringTemplateGroup supergroup = new StringTemplateGroup("super");
StringTemplateGroup subgroup = new StringTemplateGroup("sub");
supergroup.DefineTemplate("bold", "<b>$it$</b>");
subgroup.SuperGroup = supergroup;
StringTemplate st = new StringTemplate(subgroup, "$name:bold()$");
st.SetAttribute("name", "Terence");
string expecting = "<b>Terence</b>";


supergroup = stringtemplate3.StringTemplateGroup("super")
subgroup = stringtemplate3.StringTemplateGroup("sub", superGroup=group)
supergroup.defineTemplate("bold", "<b>$it$</b>")
st = stringtemplate3.StringTemplate("$name:bold()$", group=subgroup)
st["name"] = "Terence"
expecting = "<b>Terence</b>"

The supergroup has a bold definition but the subgroup does not. Referencing $name:bold()$ from a template in the subgroup works because StringTemplate looks into the supergroup if a referenced template is not found in the subgroup..

A template in a subgroup may override a template inhererited from a supergroup:


supergroup.defineTemplate("bold", "<b>$it$</b>");
subgroup.defineTemplate("bold", "<strong>$it$</strong>");


supergroup.DefineTemplate("bold", "<b>$it$</b>");
subgroup.DefineTemplate("bold", "<strong>$it$</strong>");


supergroup.defineTemplate("bold", "<b>$it$</b>");
subgroup.defineTemplate("bold", "<strong>$it$</strong>");

And a template in a subgroup may refer to a template in a supergroup via super.template():


StringTemplateGroup group = new StringTemplateGroup(...);
StringTemplateGroup subGroup = new StringTemplateGroup(...);
group.defineTemplate("page", "$font()$:text");
group.defineTemplate("font", "Helvetica");
subGroup.defineTemplate("font", "$super.font()$ and Times");
StringTemplate st = subGroup.getInstanceOf("page");


StringTemplateGroup group = new StringTemplateGroup(...);
StringTemplateGroup subGroup = new StringTemplateGroup(...);
subGroup.SuperGroup = group;
group.DefineTemplate("page", "$font()$:text");
group.DefineTemplate("font", "Helvetica");
subGroup.DefineTemplate("font", "$super.font()$ and Times");
StringTemplate st = subGroup.GetInstanceOf("page");


group = stringtemplate3.StringTemplateGroup(...)
subGroup = stringtemplate3.StringTemplateGroup(...)
group.defineTemplate("page", "$font()$:text")
group.defineTemplate("font", "Helvetica")
subGroup.defineTemplate("font", "$super.font()$ and Times")
st = subGroup.getInstanceOf("page")

The expression st.ToString() results in "Helvetica and Times:text".

Just like object-oriented programming languages, StringTemplate has polymorphism. That is, template names are looked up dynamically relative to the invoking template's group.

The classic demonstration of dynamic message sends, for example, would be the following example (this catches my students all the time): (wink)


class A {
  public void page() {bold();}
  public void bold() {System.out.println("A.bold");}
class B extends A {
  public void bold() {System.out.println("B.bold");}
A a = new B();;


class A {
  public void page() {bold();}
  override public void bold() {Console.Out.WriteLine("A.bold");}
class B : A {
  virtual public void bold() {Console.Out.WriteLine("B.bold");}
A a = new B();;

This prints "B.bold" not "A.bold" because the receiver determines how to answer a message not the type of the variable. So, I have created a B object meaning that any message, such as bold(), invoked will first look in class B for bold().

Similarly, a template's group determines where it starts looking for a template. In this case, both super and sub groups define a bold template mirroring the code above. Because I create template st as a member of subGroup, any reference to bold (say while processing st.ToString()) prompts StringTemplate to start looking for the bold template in subGroup, even though bold is referenced via the page template which is a member of the supergroup..


StringTemplateGroup group = new StringTemplateGroup("super");
StringTemplateGroup subGroup = new StringTemplateGroup("sub");
group.defineTemplate("bold", "<b>$it$</b>");
group.defineTemplate("page", "$name:bold()$");
subGroup.defineTemplate("bold", "<strong>$it$</strong>");
StringTemplate st = subGroup.getInstanceOf("page");
st.setAttribute("name", "Ter");
String expecting = "<strong>Ter</strong>";


StringTemplateGroup group = new StringTemplateGroup("super");
StringTemplateGroup subGroup = new StringTemplateGroup("sub");
subGroup.SuperGroup = group;
group.DefineTemplate("bold", "<b>$it$</b>");
group.DefineTemplate("page", "$name:bold()$");
subGroup.DefineTemplate("bold", "<strong>$it$</strong>");
StringTemplate st = subGroup.GetInstanceOf("page");
st.SetAttribute("name", "Ter");
string expecting = "<strong>Ter</strong>";


group = stringtemplate3.StringTemplateGroup("super")
subGroup = stringtemplate3.StringTemplateGroup("sub", superGroup=group)
group.defineTemplate("bold", "<b>$it$</b>")
group.defineTemplate("page", "$name:bold()$")
subGroup.defineTemplate("bold", "<strong>$it$</strong>")
st = subGroup.getInstanceOf("page")
st["name"] = "Ter"
expecting = "<strong>Ter</strong>"

StringTemplate group maps also inherit. If an attribute reference is not found, StringTemplate looks for a map in its group with that name. If not found, the super group is checked.

See more extensive details regarding template and attribute lookup here: Template and attribute lookup rules

8. Template regions

Template regions

ST introduces a finer-grained alternative to template inheritance, dubbed regions. (Regions are similar to a feature in Django). This feature allows a programmer to mark a location or series of lines in a template, and give it a name. A subgroup which inherits this template can provide replacement code to override just the named region. This avoids having to override the supergroup's template with a whole replacement template, when just a small addition or replacement is needed. While regions are syntactic sugar on top of template inheritance, the improvement in simplicity and clarity over normal coarser-grained inheritance is substantial.

Add text at a location

For example, in a code-generation scenario, imagine using the following template called method to produce the text for a method:

group Java;
method(name,code) ::= <<
public void <name>() {

Suppose that you also want the option for the method template to place debugging statements into the generated method code. (To be clear about this example: this would be debugging code in the generated Java method, not code to debug the template processing itself.)

You could start placing debug text into the existing template, making it optional using the conditionally-included subtemplates feature, placing <if(...)> etc  around the debugging lines. But that clutters up the templates of the Java group considerably, and also fails to achieve proper separation of concerns.

Instead you would like to have all debugging stuff encapsulated in a separate template group which focuses on debugging. In that template group, you could create an overriding template for method by copying and pasting the entire existing method template and inserting your additions. But then you are duplicating all of that output literal text, which breaks the "single point of change principle."

Instead just leave a hole in the main method template that a subgroup can override, here a location marked with <@preamble()>:

group Java;
method(name,code) ::= <<
public void <name>() {

In a template subgroup focusing on debugging (group dbg), define the region using a fully qualified name which includes the region's surrounding template name, @method.preamble(), and supply the replacement text:

group dbg : Java;
@method.preamble() ::= <<System.out.println("enter");>>

Regions are like subtemplates scoped within a template, hence, the fully-qualified name of a region is @t.r() where t is the enclosing template and r is the region name.

Replace a region of existing template text

Consider another problem where you would like, in a template subgroup, to replace a small portion of a large inherited template. Imagine you have a template that generates conditional statements in the output language, but you would also like to be able to generate a debug version of these statements which track the fact that an expression was evaluated.

(To be clear about this example, ths template's purpose is to produce "if" statements in the output language, here Java. That "if" is unrelated to the issue of using template <if(...)> expressions, which we are discussing how to avoid.)

Again, to avoid mingling debug version code with your main templates, you want to avoid "if dbg" type template expressions. Instead, mark the region within the template that might be replaced by an inheriting subgroup focusing on debugging. Here the code is marked with the pair of markers <@eval>...<@end>:

group Java;
test(expr,code) ::= "if (<@eval><expr><@end>) {<code>}"

where <@r>..<@end> marks the region called r. Now a template subgroup can override (replace) this region:

group dbg : Java;
@test.eval() ::= "trackAndEval(<expr>)"

Regions may not have parameters, but because of the dynamic scoping of attributes, the overridden region may access all of the attributes of the surrounding template.

In an overridden region, @super.r()refers to the supergroup template's original region contents.

(I'm guessing this is trying to say: Within the replacement template text, ie: right-hand-side, you can use the symbol @super.r() to insert the original region contents.  Also guessing that "super" is a keyword, and should not be replaced, while "r" should be replaced with the actual region name. Pretty sure this needs to be enclosed in expression delimiters, not just bare. -- GW)

9. Conditionally included subtemplates

There are many situations when you want to conditionally include some text or another template. StringTemplate provides simple IF-statements to let you specify conditional includes. For example, in a dynamic web page you usually want a slightly different look depending on whether or not the viewer is "logged in" or not. Without a conditional include, you would need two templates: page_logged_in and page_logged_out. You can use a single page definition with if(expr) attribute actions instead:

where template top_gutter_logged_in is located in the gutter subdirectory of my StringTemplateGroup.

IF actions test the presence or absence of an attribute unless the object is a Boolean/bool, in which case it tests the attribute for true/false. The only operator allowed is "not" and means either "not present" or "not true". For example, "$if(!member)$...$endif$".

You can also use elseif to make a chain of tests:


The first true expression "wins".

Whitespace in conditionals issue

There is a simple, but not perfect rule: kill a single newline after <if>, <<, <else>, and <endif> (but for <endif> only if it's on a line by itself) . Kill newlines before <else> and <endif> and >>. For example,

a <if(foo)>big<else>small<endif> dog

is identical to:

a <if(foo)>

It is very difficult to get the newline rule to work "properly" because sometimes you want newlines and sometimes you don't. I
decided to chew up as many as is reasonable and then let you explicitly say <\n> when you need to.

10. Expressions

Table of Contents for Expressions


Attribute References

Named attributes

The most common thing in a template besides plain text is a simple named attribute reference such as:

Your email: $email$

The template will look up the value of email and insert it into the output stream when you ask the template to print itself out. If email has no value, then it evaluates to the empty string and nothing is printed out for that attribute expression. When working with group files, if email is not defined in the formal parameter list of an enclosing template, an exception is thrown.

If the attribute is multi-value such as an instance of a list, the elements are emitted without separator one after the other. If there are null values in the list, these are ignored by default. Given template $values$ with attribute values=9,6,null,2,null then the output would be:


To use a separator in between those multiple values, use the separator option:

$values; separator=", "$

The output would be:

9, 6, 2

To emit a special value for each null element in a list, use the null option:

$values; null="-1", separator=", "$

Again using values=9,6,null,2,null then the output would be:

9, 6, -1, 2, -1

Property references

If a named attribute is an aggregate with a property or a simple data field, you may reference that property using For example:

Your name: $$
Your email: $$

StringTemplate ignores the actual object type stored in attribute person and simply looks for one of the following via reflection (in search order):


  1. A method named getName()
  2. A method named isName() - StringTemplate accepts isName() if it returns a Boolean
    If found, a return value is obtained via reflection. The expression is resolved in a similar manner.
    If the property is not accessible ala JavaBeans, StringTemplate attempts to find a field with the same name as the property. In the above example, StringTemplate would look for fields name and email without the capitalization used with JavaBeans property access methods


  1. a C# property (i.e. a non-indexed CLR property) named name
  2. A method named get_name()
  3. A method named Getname()
  4. A method named Isname()
  5. A method named getname()
  6. A method named isname()
  7. A field named name
  8. A C# indexer (i.e. a CLR indexed property) that accepts a single string parameter - this["name"]
    If found, a return value is obtained via reflection. The expression is resolved in a similar manner.
    As shown above, if the property is not accessible as a C# property, StringTemplate attempts to find a field with the same name as the property. In the above example, StringTemplate would look for fields name and email without the capitalization typically used with property access methods.


  1. A method named getName()
  2. A method named isName() - StringTemplate accepts isName() if it returns a Boolean
    If found, a return value is obtained via reflection. The expression is resolved in a similar manner.
    If the property is not accessible ala JavaBeans, StringTemplate attempts to find a field with the same name as the property. In the above example, StringTemplate would look for fields name and email without the capitalization used with JavaBeans property access methods

An exception is thrown if that property is not defined on the target object.

Because the type is ignored, you can pass in whatever existing aggregate (class) you have such as User or Person:


User u = database.lookupPerson("");
st.setAttribute("person", u);


User u = database.LookupPerson("");
st.SetAttribute("person", u);


u = database.lookupPerson("")
st["person"] = u

Or, if a suitable aggregate doesn't exist, you can make a connector or "glue" object and pass that in instead:


st.setAttribute("person", new Connector());


st.SetAttribute("person", new Connector());


st["person"] = Connector()

where Connector is defined as:


public class Connector {
    public String getName() { return "Terence"; }
    public String getEmail() { return ""; }


public class Connector {
    public string Name  { get {return "Terence";} }
    public string Email { get { return "";} }


class Connector(object):
    def getName(self):
        return "Terence"

    def getEmail(self):
        return ""

The ability to reference aggregrate properties saves you the trouble of having to pull out the properties with code like this:


User u = database.lookupPerson("");
st.setAttribute("name", u.getName());
st.setAttribute("email", u.getEmail());


User u = database.lookupPerson("");
st.SetAttribute("name", u.Name);
st.SetAttribute("email", u.Email);


u = database.lookupPerson("")
st["name"] = u.getName()
st["email"] = u.getEmail()

and having template:

Your name: $name$
Your email: $email$

The latter is more widely applicable and totally decoupled from code and logic; i.e., it's "better" but much less convenient. Be very careful that the property methods do not have any side-effects like updating a counter or whatever. This breaks the rule of order of evaluation independence.

Indirect property names

Sometimes the property name is itself variable, in which case you need to use indirect property access notation:


where propertyName is an attribute whose value is the name of a property to fetch from person. Using the examples from above, propertyName could hold the value of either name or email.

propertyName may actually be an expression instead of a simple attribute name.

Map key/value pair access


You may pass in instances of any object that implements the Map interface. Rather than creating an aggregate object (though automatic aggregate creation is discussed in the next section) you can pass in a HashMap that has keys referencable within templates. For example,

StringTemplate a = new StringTemplate("$$, $$");
HashMap user = new HashMap();
user.put("name", "Terence");
user.put("phone", "none-of-your-business");
a.setAttribute("user", user);
String results = a.toString();

yields a result of "Terence, none-of-your-business".


You may pass in instances of type Hashtable and ListDictionary but cannot pass in objects implementing the IDictionary interface because that would allow all sorts of wacky stuff like database access. Rather than creating an aggregate object (though automatic aggregate creation is discussed in the next section) you can pass in a Hashtable that has keys referencable within templates. For example,

StringTemplate a = new StringTemplate("$$, $$");
Hashtable user = new Hashtable();
user.Add("name", "Terence");
user.Add("phone", "none-of-your-business");
a.SetAttribute("user", user);
string results = a.ToString();

yields a result of "Terence, none-of-your-business".


You may pass in instances of type dict. Rather than creating an aggregate object (though automatic aggregate creation is discussed in the next section) you can pass in a dict that has keys referencable within templates. For example,

a = stringtemplate3.StringTemplate("$$, $$")
user = {}
user["name"] = "Terence"
user["phone"] = "none-of-your-business"
a["user"] = user
results = str(a)

yields a result of "Terence, none-of-your-business".

StringTemplate interprets Map objects to have two predefined properties: keys and values that yield a list of all keys and the list of all values, respectively. When applying a template to a map, StringTemplate iterates over the values so that <aMap> is a shorthand for <aMap.values>. Similarly <aMap.keys> walks over the keys. You can list all of the elements in a map like this:

<aMap.keys:{k| <k> maps to <aMap.(k)>}>.

Note the use of the indirect property reference <aMap.(k)>, which says to take the value of the k as the key in the lookup. Clearly without the parentheses the normal map lookup mechanism would treat k as a literal and try to look up k in the map.  Also note that the map must have keys that are Strings for indirect property referencing to work, because the key is first rendered into a string by ST and then that is used to look up the value in the map.

Difficult property names

Some property names cause parse errors because of clashes with built in keywords or because they do not match the rules for IDs as used by String Template. These difficult property names can be dealt with by quoting the property name in combination with the indirect property construct:

$person.("first")$       --- Build in keyword
$person.("1")$           --- non ID conforment name

Difficult properties names are quite likely to occur when dealing with maps. Map keys can be defined using arbitrary strings, including spaces and syntax characters used to defined templates themselves.

Be careful that the keys are the appropriate type. If person keys are Integer, $person.("1")$ won't work as Strings are never Integers.

Automatic aggregate creation

Creating one-off data aggregates is a pain, you have to define a new class just to associate two pieces of data. StringTemplate makes it easy to group data during setAttribute() calls. You may pass in an aggregrate attribute name to setAttribute() with the data to aggregate:


StringTemplate st = new StringTemplate("$items:{$it.(\"last\")$, $it.(\"first\")$\n}$");
st.setAttribute("items.{first,last}", "John", "Smith");
st.setAttribute("items.{first,last}", "Baron", "Von Munchhausen");
String expecting =
        "Smith, John\n" +
        "Von Munchhausen, Baron\n";


StringTemplate st = new StringTemplate("$items:{$it.(\"last\")$, $it.(\"first\")$\n}$");
st.SetAttribute("items.{first,last}", "John", "Smith");
st.SetAttribute("items.{first,last}", "Baron", "Von Munchhausen");
string expecting = "Smith, John\n" +
                   "Von Munchhausen, Baron\n";


st = stringtemplate3.StringTemplate("$items:{$it.(\"last\")$, $it.(\"first\")$\n}$")
st.setAttribute("items.{first,last}", "John", "Smith")
st.setAttribute("items.{first,last}", "Baron", "Von Munchhausen")
expecting = \
   "Smith, John\n" + \
   "Von Munchhausen, Baron\n"

Note that the template, st, expects the items to be aggregates with properties first and last. By using attribute name


You are telling StringTemplate to take the following two arguments as properties first and last.

The various overloads of the setAttribute() method can handle from 1 to 5 arguments. The C# version uses variable-length argument list (using params keyword).

List construction

As of v2.2, you may combine multiple attributes into a single multi-valued attribute in a syntax similar to the group map feature. Concatenate attributes by placing them in square brackets in a comma-separated list. For example,


creates a new multi-valued attribute (a list) with both elements - all of mine first then all of yours. This feature is handy when the model happens to group attributes differently than you need to access them in the view. This ability to rearrange attributes is consistent with model-view separation because the template cannot alter the data structure nor test its values - the template is merely looking at the data from a new perspective.

Naturally you may combine the list construction with template application:

$[mine,yours]:{ v | ...}$

Note that this is very different from

$mine,yours:{ x,y | ...}$

which iterates max(n,m) times where n and m are the lengths of mine and yours, respectively. The [mine,yours] version iterates n+m times.

Template References

You may reference other templates to have them included just like the C language preprocessor #include construct behaves. For example, if you are building a web page ( that has a search box, you might want the search box stored in a separate template file, say, This has two advantages:

  • You can reuse the template over and over (no cut/paste)
  • You can change one template and all search boxes change on the whole site.

Using method call syntax, just reference the foreign template:


The invoking code would still just create the overall page and the enclosing page template would automatically create an instance of the referenced template and insert it:


StringTemplateGroup group = new StringTemplateGroup("webpages", "/usr/local/site/templates");
StringTemplate page = group.getInstanceOf("page");


StringTemplateGroup group = new StringTemplateGroup("webpages", "C:/Inetpub/wwwroot/site/templates");
StringTemplate page = group.GetInstanceOf("page");


group = stringtemplate3.StringTemplateGroup("webpages", "/usr/local/site/templates")
page = group.getInstanceOf("page")

If the template you want to reference, say searchbox, is in a subdirectory of the StringTemplateGroup root directory called misc, then you must reference the template as: misc/searchbox().

The included template may access attributes. How can you set the attribute of an included template? There are two ways: inheriting attributes and passing parameters.

Accessing Attributes Of Enclosing Template

Any included template can reference the attributes of the enclosing template instance. So if searchbox references an attribute called resource:

<form ...>
<input type=hidden name=resource value=$resource$>

you could set attribute resource in the enclosing template page object:


StringTemplate page = group.getInstanceOf("page");
page.setAttribute("resource", "faqs");


StringTemplate page = group.GetInstanceOf("page");
page.SetAttribute("resource", "faqs");


page = group.getInstanceOf("page")
page["resource"] = "faqs"

This "inheritance" (dynamic scoping really) of attributes feature is particularly handy for setting generally useful attributes like siteFontTag in the outermost body template and being able to reference it in any nested template in the body.

Passing Parameters To Another Template

Another, more obvious, way to set the attributes of an included template is to pass in values as parameters, making them look like C macro invocations rather than includes. The syntax looks like a set of attribute assignments:


where I am setting the attribute of the included searchbox to be the string literal "faqs".

The right-hand-side of the assignment may be any expression such as an attribute reference or even a reference to another template like this:


You may also use an anonymous template such as:

$bold(it={$firstName$ $lastName$})$

which first computes the template argument and then assigns it to it.

If you are using StringTemplate groups, then you have formal parameters and for those templates with a sole formal argument, you can pass just an expression instead of doing an assignment to the argument name. For example, if you do $bold(name)$ and bold has one formal argument called item, then item gets the value of name just as if you had said {$bold(item=name)$}.

Allowing enclosing attributes to pass through

When template x calls template y, the formal arguments of y hide any x arguments of the same because the formal parameters force you to define values. This prevents surprises and makes it easy to ensure any parameter value is empty unless you specifically set it for that template. The problem is that you need to factor templates sometimes and want to refine behavior with a subclass or just invoke another shared template but invoking y as <y()> hides all of x's parameters with the same name. Use <y(...)> syntax to indicate y should inherit all values even those with the same name. <y(name="foo", ...)> would set one arg, but the others are inherited whereas <y(name="foo")> only has name set; all other arguments of template y are empty. You can set manually with:






st.passThroughAttributes = True

Argument evaluation scope

The right-hand-side of the argument assignments are evaluated within the scope of the enclosing template whereas the left-hand-side attribute name is the name of an attribute in the target template. Template invocations like $bold(item=item)$ actually make sense because the item on the right is evaluated in a different scope.

Attribute operators

StringTemplate provides a number of operators that you can apply to attributes to get a new view of that data: first, rest, last, length, strip.

Sometimes you need to treat the first or last element of multi-valued attribute differently than the others. For example, if you have a list of integers in an attribute and you need to generate code to sum those numbers, you could start like this:

<numbers:{ n | sum += <n>;}>

You need to define sum, however:

int sum = 0;
<numbers:{ n | sum += <n>;}>

What if numbers is empty though? No need to create the sum definition so you could do this:

<if(numbers)>int sum = 0;<endif>
<numbers:{ n | sum += <n>;}>

A more specific strategy (and one that generates slightly better code as it avoids an unnecessary initialization to 0) is the following:

<first(numbers):{ n | int sum = <n>;}>
<rest(numbers):{ n | sum += <n>;}>

where first(numbers) results in the first value of attribute numbers if any and rest(numbers) results all values in numbers but the first value.

The other operator available to you is last, which naturally results in the last value of a multi-valued attribute.  Now we have trunc also which returns all but the last value.

Special cases:

  • operations on empty attributes yields an empty value
  • rest of a single-valued attribute yields an empty value
  • tail of a single-valued attribute yields the same as first, the attribute value

You may find it handy to use another operator sometimes: plus "string concatenate". operator. For example, you may want to compute an argument to a template using a literal and an attribute:

...$link(url="/faq/view?ID="+faqid, title=faqtitle)$...

where faqid and faqtitle are attributes you have set for
the template that referenced link.

Terence says

I'm a little uncomfortable with this concatenation operation. Please use a template instead


...$link(url={/faq/view?ID=$faqid$}, title=faqtitle)$...

In order to emit the number of attributes in a single or multi-value attribute, use the length operator:

int data[$length(x)$] = { $x; separator=", "$ };

In this example, with x=5,2,9 the following would be emitted:

int data[3] = { 5, 2, 9 };

Null values are counted by length but you can use the strip operator to return a new view of your list without null values:

int data[$length(strip(x))] = { $x; separator=", "$ };

Template Application

Imagine a simple template called bold:


Just as with template link described above, you can reference it from a template by invoking it like a method call:


What if you want something bold and italicized? You could simply nest the template reference:


(or $bold(italics(name))$ if you're using group file format and have formal parameters). Template italics is defined as:


using a different attribute with the same name, item; the attributes have different values just like you would expect if these template references where method calls in say Java or C# and, item was a local variable. Parameters and attribute references are scoped like a programming language.

Think about what you are really trying to say here. You want to say "make name italics and then make it bold", or "apply italics to the name and then apply bold." There is an "apply template" syntax that is a literal translation:


where the templates are applied in the order specified from left to right. This is much more clear, particularly if you had three templates to apply:


For this syntax to work, however, the applied templates have to reference a standard attribute because you are not setting the attribute in a parameter assignment. In general for syntax expr:template(), an attribute called it is set to the value of expr. So, the definition of bold (and analogously italics), would have to be:


to pick up the value of name in our examples above.

As of 2.2 StringTemplate, you can avoid using it as a default parameter by using formal arguments. For expression $x:y()$, StringTemplate will assign the value of x to it and any sole formal argument of y. For example, if y is:

y(item) ::= "_$item$_"

then item would also have the value of x.

If the attribute to which you are applying a template is null (i.e., missing), then the application is not done as there is no work to do. Optionally, you can specify what string template should display when the attribute is null a using the null option:

$name:bold(); null="n/a"$

That is equivalent to the following conditional:


Applying Templates To Multi-Valued Attributes

Where template application really shines though is when an attribute is multi-valued. One of the most common web page generation issues is making lists of items either as bullet lists or table rows etc... Applying a template to a multi-valued attribute means that you want the template applied to each of the values.

Consider a list of names (i.e., you set attribute names multiple times) that you want in a bullet list. If you have a template called listItem:


then you can do this:


and each name will appear as a bullet item. For example, if you set names to "Terence", "Tom", and "Kunle", then you would see:


in the output.

Whenever you apply a template to an attribute or multi-valued attribute, the default attribute it is set. Similarly, attributes i and i0 (since v3.0) of type integer are set to the value's index number starting from 1 (i0 starts from 0). For example, if you wanted to make your own style of numbered list, you could reference i to get the index:


where template numberedListItem is defined as:

$i$. $it$<br>

In this case, the output would be:

1. Terence<br>
2. Tom<br>
3. Kunle<br>

If there is only one attribute value, then i will be 1. However, if template numberedListItem is defined as:

$i0$. $it$<br>

The output would be:

0. Terence<br>
1. Tom<br>
2. Kunle<br>

As when invoking templates ala "includes", a single formal argument is also set to the iterated value. For example, you could define numberedListItem as follows in a StringTemplateGroup file:

numberedListItem(item) ::= "$i$. $item$<br>"

Templates are not applied to null values in multi-valued attributes. StringTemplate behaves as if those values simply did not exist in the list. To emit a special string or template for each null value, use the null option:

$names:bold(); null="n/a"$

which will emit "n/a" for any null value in attribute names.

Applying Multiple Templates To Multi-Valued Attributes

The result of applying a template to a multi-valued attribute is another multi-valued attribute containing the results of the application. You may apply another template to the results of the first template application, which comes in handy when you need to format the elements of a list before they go into the list. For example, to bold the elements of a list do the following (given the appropriate template definitions from above):


If you actually want to apply a template to the combined (string) result of a previous template application, enclose the previous application in parenthesis. The parenthesis will force immediate evaluation of the template application, resulting in a string. For example,


results in a single list item full of a bunch of bolded names. Without the parenthesis, you get a list of items that are bolded.

Applying Alternating Templates To Multi-Valued Attributes

When generating lists of things, you often need to change the color or other formatting instructions depending on the list position. For example, you might want to alternate the color of the background for the elements of a list. The easiest and most natural way to specify this is with an alternating list of templates to apply to an expression of the form: $expr:t1(),t2(),...,tN()$. To make an alternating list of blue and green names, you might say:


where presumably blueListItem template is an HTML <table> or something that lets you change background color. names[0] would get blueListItem() applied to it, names[1] would get greenListItem(), and names[2] would get blueListItem() again, etc...

If names is single-valued, then blueListItem() is applied and that's it.

Applying Anonymous Templates

Some templates are so simple or so unlikely to be reused that it seems a waste of time making a separate template file and then referencing it. StringTemplate provides anonymous subtemplates to handle this case. The templates are anonymous in the sense that they are not named; they are directly applied in a single instance.

For example, to show a name list do the following:


where anything enclosed in curlies is an anonymous subtemplate if, of course, it's within an attribute expression. Note that in the subtemplate, I must enclose the it reference in the template expression delimiters. You have started a new template exactly like the surrounding template and you must distinguish between text and attribute expressions.

You can apply multiple templates very conveniently. Here is the bold list of names again with anonymous templates:


The output would look like:


Anonymous templates work on single-valued attributes as well.

As of 2.2, you may define formal arguments on anonymous templates even if you are not using StringTemplate groups. This syntax is borrowed from Smalltalk though it is identical in function to lambda of Python. Use a comma-separated list of argument names followed by the '|' "pipe" symbol. Any single whitespace character immediately following the pipe is ignored. The following example bolds the names in a list using an argument to avoid the monotonous use of it:

$names:{ n | <b>$n$</b>}$

Clearly only one argument may be defined in this situation: the iterated value of a single list.

Anonymous template application to multiple attributes

In some cases, the model may present data to the view as separate columns of data rather than as a single list of objects, such as multi-valued attributes names and phones rather than a single users multi-valued attribute. As of 2.2, you may iterate over multiple attributes:

$names,phones:{ n,p | $n$: $p$}$

An error is generated if you have too many arguments for the number of attributes. Iteration proceeds while at least one of the attributes (names or phones, in this case) has values.

Indirect template references

Sometimes the name of the template you would like to include is itself a variable. So, rather than using "<item:format()>" you want the name of the template, format, to be a variable rather than a literal. Just enclose the template name in parenthesis to indicate you want the immediate value of that attribute and then add () like a normal template invocation and you get "<item:(someFormat)()>", which means "look up attribute someFormat and use its value as a template name; appy to item." This deliberately looks similar to the C function call indirection through a function pointer (e.g., "(*fp)()" where fp is a pointer to a function). A better way to look at it though is that the (someFormat) implies immediately evaluate someFormat and use as the template name.

Usually this "variable template" situation occurs when you have a list of items to format and each element may require a different template. Rather than have the controller code create a bunch of instances, one could consider it better to have StringTemplate do the creation--the controller just names what format to use.

If StringTemplate did not have a map definition, you could simulate its functionality. Consider generating a list of C# declarations that are initialized to 0, false, null, etc... You could define a template for int, Object, Array, etc... declarations and then pass in an aggregate object that has the variable declaration object and the format. In a template group file you might have:

group Java;

file(variables,methods) ::= <<
<variables:{ v | <v.decl:(v.format)()>}; separator="\n">
intdecl(decl) ::= "int <> = 0;"
intarray(decl) ::= "int[] <> = null;"

Your code might look like:


StringTemplateGroup group =
        new StringTemplateGroup(new StringReader(templates),
StringTemplate f = group.getInstanceOf("file");
f.setAttribute("variables.{decl,format}", new Decl("i","int"), "intdecl");
f.setAttribute("variables.{decl,format}", new Decl("a","int-array"), "intarray");
String expecting = ""+newline+newline;


StringTemplateGroup group =
        new StringTemplateGroup(new StringReader(templates),
StringTemplate f = group.GetInstanceOf("file");
f.setAttribute("variables.{decl,format}", new Decl("i","int"), "intdecl");
f.setAttribute("variables.{decl,format}", new Decl("a","int-array"), "intarray");
string expecting = ""+newline+newline;


group = stringtemplate3.StringTemplateGroup(file=StringIO(templates), lexer="angle-bracket")
f = group.getInstanceOf("file")
f.setAttribute("variables.{decl,format}", Decl("i","int"), "intdecl")
f.setAttribute("variables.{decl,format}", Decl("a","int-array"), "intarray")
print "f =", f
expecting = ""+os.linesep

For this simple unit test, the following dummy decl class is used:


public static class Decl {
    String name;
    String type;
    public Decl(String name, String type) {; this.type=type;}
    public String getName() {return name;}
    public String getType() {return type;}


public class Decl {
    string name;
    string type;
    public Decl(string name, string type) {; this.type=type;}
    public string Name { get {return name;} }
    public string Type { get {return type;} }


class Decl(object):
    def __init__(self, name, type_): = name
        self.type = type_

    def getName(self):

    def getType(self):
        return self.type

The value of f.ToString() is:

int i = 0;
int[] a = null;

Missing attributes (i.e., null valued attributes) used as indirect template attribute generate nothing just like referencing a missing attribute.

11. Object rendering

Note: You should also look at The Internationalization and Localization of Web Applications.

The atomic element of a template is a simple object that is rendered to text by its ToString() method. For example, an integer object is converted to text as a sequence of characters representing the numeric value written out. What if you wanted commas to separate the 1000's places like 1,000,000? What if you wanted commas and sometimes periods depending on the locale?.

Prior to 2.2, there was no means of altering the rendering of objects to text. The controller had to pull data from the model and wrap it on an object whose ToString() method rendered it appropriately.

As of StringTemplate 2.2, you may register various attribute renderers associated with object class types. Normally a single renderer will be used for a group of templates so that Date objects are always displayed using the appropriate Locale, for example. There are, however, situations where you might want a template to override the group renderers. You may register renderers with either templates or groups and groups inherit the renderers from super groups (if any).

There is a new abstraction that defines how an object is rendered to string:


class AttributeRenderer


interface IAttributeRenderer


class AttributeRenderer

Here is a renderer that renders date objects tersely.


public class DateRenderer implements AttributeRenderer {
	public String toString(Object o) {
		SimpleDateFormat f = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy.MM.dd");
		return f.format(((Calendar)o).getTime());
StringTemplate st =new StringTemplate(
		"date: <created>",
st.setAttribute("created", new GregorianCalendar(2005, 07-1, 05));
st.registerRenderer(GregorianCalendar.class, new DateRenderer());
String expecting = "date: 2005.07.05";
String result = st.toString();


public class DateRenderer : IAttributeRenderer
	public string ToString(object o) {
		DateTime dt = (DateTime) o;
		return dt.ToString("yyyy.MM.dd");
StringTemplate st =new StringTemplate("date: <created>",typeof(AngleBracketTemplateLexer));
st.SetAttribute("created", new DateTime(2005, 07, 05, New GregorianCalendar()));
st.registerRenderer(typeof(DateTime), new DateRenderer());
string expecting = "date: 2005.07.05";
string result = st.ToString();


import stringtemplate3
from datetime import date

class DateRenderer(stringtemplate3.AttributeRenderer):
    def toString(self, o, format=None):
        return o.strftime("%Y.%m.%d")
st = stringtemplate3.StringTemplate("date: <created>", lexer="angle-bracket")
st["created"] = date(year=2005, month=7, day=5)
st.registerRenderer(date, DateRenderer())
expecting = "date: 2005.07.05"
result = str(st)

In the sample code above, date objects are represented as objects of type:







All attributes of the date types above in template st are rendered using the DateRenderer object.

Note: In light of the new format option the following paragraph should be revised.

You will notice that there is no way for the template to say which renderer to use. Allowing such a mechanism would effectively imply an ability to call random code from the template. In StringTemplate's scheme, only the model or controller can set the renderer. The template must still reference a simple attribute such as <created>. If you need the same kind of attribute displayed differently within the same template or group, you must pass in two different attribute types. This would be rare, but if you need it, you can easily still wrap an object in a renderer before sending it to the template as an attribute. For example, if you have a web site that allows editing of some descriptions, you will probably need both an escaped and unescaped version of the description. Send in the unescaped description as one attribute and send it in again wrapped in an HTML escape renderer as a different attribute.

As far as I can tell, this functionality is mostly useful in the web page generation realm rather than code generation; perhaps an opportunity will present it self though.

Format Option

There are cases where the template is the only reasonable place to determine what formatting needs to be applied to an attribute. For example, when generating HTML different characters need to be escaped in an attribute value than in element content. Only the template knows where it is going to put an attribute. Another, perhaps less likely, example would be a template that is rendering Java code that has SQL statements in Java strings. Attributes within the SQL statements will need different escaping.

The format option allows the template to decide what formatting to use where but leaves the details of how the formatting is done completely in the hands of the controller.

To make use of the format option you must create a renderer that implements interface AttributeRenderer and provides an implementation for the toString method that takes a formatName String.


public class BasicFormatRenderer implements AttributeRenderer {
    public String toString(Object o) {
        return o.toString();
    public String toString(Object o, String formatName) {
        if (formatName.equals("toUpper")) {
            return o.toString().toUpperCase();
        } else if (formatName.equals("toLower")) {
            return o.toString().toLowerCase();
        } else {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unsupported format name");


class BasicFormatRenderer(stringtemplate3.AttributeRenderer):
    def toString(self, o, formatName=None):
        if formatName is None:
            # no formatting specified
            return str(o)

        if formatName == "toUpper":
            return str(o).upper()
        elif formatName == "toLower":
            return str(o).lower()
            raise ValueError("Unsupported format name")

The renderer is registered with a group as previously shown. The renderer can do anything it likes to format the string. The toUpper and toLower cases are examples of what can be done. It is not required that an exception is thrown if the formatName is not supported you could also simply return the result of o.toString().

From a template you can now use any of the named formats supported by the registered renderers. For example:


The expression after the equal sign must resolve to a string that matches one of the strings that the renderer recognizes. There is no default value for the format option.

The format option can be combined with any of the other options. Format will apply to the value of the null option but not to the separator.

For example

$list : { [$it$] };format="toUpper",separator=" and ",null="woops"$

results in

[X] and [Y] and [WOOPS] and [Z]

when list contains "x", "y", null, "y" and toUpper is a supported format option of the available renderer for type String that returns the upper case input string. Note that the value of null was upper cased but the separator " and " was not.

If you really want the separator to be formatted then you must do this

${$list : { [$it$] };separator=" and ",null="woops"$};format="toUpper"$

12. Expression options

There are 5 expression options at the moment:
  • separator. Specify text to be emitted between multiple values emitted for a single expression. For example, given a list of names, <names> spits them out right next to each other. Using a separator can put a comma in between automatically: <names; separator=",">. This is by far the most commonly used option. See How to construct separators?.
  • format. Used in conjunction with the AttributeRenderer interface, which describes an object that knows how to format or otherwise render an object appropriately. The toString(Object,String) method is used when the user uses the format option: $o; format="f"$. Renderers check the formatName and apply the appropriate formatting. If the format string passed to the renderer is not recognized, then it should simply call toString(Object).
    This option is very effective for locale changes and for choosing the display characteristics of an object in the template rather than encode.
    Each template may have a renderer for each object type or can default to the group's renderer or the super group's renderer if the group doesn't have one. See Object rendering#Format Option.
  • null. Emit a special value for each null element. For example, given values=9,6,null,2,null
    $values; null="-1", separator=", "$
    9, 6, -1, 2, -1
    See Expressions
  • wrap. Tell ST that it is okay to wrapped lines to get too long. The wrap option may also take an argument but it's default is simply a \n string. You must specify an integer width using the toString(int) method to get ST to actually wrap expressions modified with this option. For example, given a list of names and expression <names; wrap>, a call to toString(72) will emit the names until it surpasses 72 characters in with and then inserts a new line and begins emitting names again. Naturally this can be used in conjunction with the separator option. ST Never breaks in between a real element and the separator; the wrap occurs only after a separator. See Automatic line wrapping.
  • anchor. Line up all wrapped lines with left edge of expression when wrapping. Default is anchor="true" (any non-null value means anchor). See Automatic line wrapping.

The option values are all full expressions, which can include references to templates, anonymous templates, and so on. For example here is a separator that invokes another template:

<ul>$name; separator=bulletSeparator(foo=" ")+"&nbsp;"$</ul>

The wrap and anchor options are implemented via the Output Filters. The others are handled during interpretation by ST. Well, the filters also are notified that a separator vs regular string is coming out to prevent newlines between real elements and separators.

Java examples

Here is an example use of the format option.

public void testRendererWithFormatAndList() throws Exception {
    StringTemplate st =new StringTemplate(
                    "The names: <names; format=\"upper\">",
    st.setAttribute("names", "ter");
    st.setAttribute("names", "tom");
    st.setAttribute("names", "sriram");
    st.registerRenderer(String.class, new StringRenderer());
    String expecting = "The names: TERTOMSRIRAM";
    String result = st.toString();
    assertEquals(expecting, result);

The code registers a renderer for the String class. Without the format option, the toString(Object) method is used to convert strings to the emitted text. With the option, the toString(Object, String) method is invoked. Here is the renderer used in the example:

public class StringRenderer implements AttributeRenderer {
    public String toString(Object o) {
            return (String)o;
    public String toString(Object o, String formatString) {
            if ( formatString.equals("upper") ) {
                    return ((String)o).toUpperCase();
            return toString(o);

The following code snippet is the same as the previous example except for the introduction of the separator option, which cleans up the output as you can see by the expecting string:

public void testRendererWithFormatAndSeparator() throws Exception {
    StringTemplate st =new StringTemplate(
                    "The names: <names; separator=\" and \", format=\"upper\">",
    st.setAttribute("names", "ter");
    st.setAttribute("names", "tom");
    st.setAttribute("names", "sriram");
    st.registerRenderer(String.class, new StringRenderer());
    String expecting = "The names: TER and TOM and SRIRAM";
    String result = st.toString();
    assertEquals(expecting, result);

If there are null elements in the list of names, you can specify a string to replace all of the null values using the null option:

public void testRendererWithFormatAndSeparatorAndNull() throws Exception {
    StringTemplate st =new StringTemplate(
        "The names: <names; separator=\" and \", null=\"n/a\", format=\"upper\">",
    List names = new ArrayList();
    st.setAttribute("names", names);
    st.registerRenderer(String.class, new StringRenderer());
    String expecting = "The names: TER and N/A and SRIRAM";
    String result = st.toString();
    assertEquals(expecting, result);

Python examples

If you are constructing HTML documents you have to escape plain text strings so that < or & characters appear as literal text and do not act as HTML delimiters (thus opening a wide range of possible attacks if the text originated from user input).

import cgi
import stringtemplate3

group = stringtemplate3.StringTemplateGroup(
    name="default", rootDir="path/to/templates/"

class EscapeRenderer(stringtemplate3.AttributeRenderer):
    def toString(self, o, formatName=None):
        if formatName is None:
            # no formatting specified
            return str(o)

        if formatName == "escape":
            return cgi.escape(str(o))
            raise ValueError("Unsupported format name")

group.registerRenderer(str, EscapeRenderer())

st = group.getInstanceOf("blogEntry")
st['comment'] = database.loadComment() # an instance with username, text, url, ... attributes

Then you can use $comment.text; format="escape"$ in your templates whenever an attribute is not known to be save.

13. Auto-indentation


StringTemplate has auto-indentation on by default. To turn it off, use NoIndentWriter rather than (the default) AutoIndentWriter.

At the simplest level, the indentation looks like a simple column count:

My dogs' names 
  $names; separator="\n"$
The last, unindented line

will yield output like:

My dog's names
The last, unindented line

where the last line gets "unindented" after displaying the list. StringTemplate tracks the characters to the left of the $ or < rather than the column number so that if you indent with tabs versus spaces, you'll get the same indentation in the output.

When there are nested templates, StringTemplate tracks the combined indentation:

// <user> is indented two spaces
main(user) ::= <<
\t$user:quote(); separator="\n"$

quote ::= " '$it$'"

In this case, you would get output like:

\t 'Bob'
\t 'Ephram'
\t 'Mary'

where the combined indentation is tab plus space for the attribute references in template quote. Expression $user$ is indented by 1 tab and hence any attribute generated from it (in this case the $attr$ of quote()) must have
at least the tab.

Consider generating nested statement lists as in C. Any statements inside must be nested 4 spaces. Here are two templates that could take care of this:

function(name,body) ::= <<
void $name$() $body$

slist(statements) ::= <<
    $statements; separator="\n"$

Your code would create a function template instance and an slist instance, which gets passed to the function template as attribute body. The following code:


StringTemplate f = group.getInstanceOf("function");
f.setAttribute("name", "foo");
StringTemplate body = group.getInstanceOf("slist");
body.setAttribute("statements", "i=1;");
StringTemplate nestedSList = group.getInstanceOf("slist");
nestedSList.setAttribute("statements", "i=2;");
body.setAttribute("statements", nestedSList);
body.setAttribute("statements", "i=3;");
f.setAttribute("body", body);


StringTemplate f = group.GetInstanceOf("function");
f.SetAttribute("name", "foo");
StringTemplate body = group.GetInstanceOf("slist");
body.SetAttribute("statements", "i=1;");
StringTemplate nestedSList = group.GetInstanceOf("slist");
nestedSList.SetAttribute("statements", "i=2;");
body.SetAttribute("statements", nestedSList);
body.SetAttribute("statements", "i=3;");
f.SetAttribute("body", body);


f = group.getInstanceOf("function")
f["name"] = "foo"
body = group.getInstanceOf("slist")
body["statements"] = "i=1;"
nestedSList = group.getInstanceOf("slist")
nestedSList["statements"] = "i=2;"
body["statements"] = nestedSList
body["statements"] = "i=3;"
f["body"] = body

should generate something like:

void foo() {

Indentation can only occur at the start of a line so indentation is only tracked in front of attribute expressions following a newline.

The one exception to indentation is that naturally, $if$ actions do not cause indentation as they do not result in any output. However, the subtemplates (THEN and ELSE clauses) will see indentations. For example, in the following template, the two subtemplates are indented by exactly 1 space each:


14. Automatic line wrapping

Automatic line wrapping

StringTemplate never automatically wraps lines--you must explicitly use the wrap option on an expression to indicate that StringTemplate should wrap lines in between expression elements. StringTemplate never breaks literals, but it can break in between a literal and an expression. the line wrapping is soft in the sense that an expression that emits text starting before the right edge will spit out that element even if it goes past the right edge. In other words, StringTemplate does not break elements to enforce a hard right edge. It will not break line between element and separator to avoid having for example a comma appear at the left edge. You may specify the line width as an argument to toString() such as st.toString(72). By default, toString() does not wrap lines.

That said, if there's a newline in the literal to emit, it will wrap at the newline.

To illustrate the simplest form of line wrapping, consider a simple list of characters that you would like to wrap at, say, line width 3. Use the wrap option on the chars expression:

duh(chars) ::= "<chars; wrap>"

If you were to pass in a,b,c,d,e and used toString(3), you would see


as output. wrap may also take an argument but it's default is simply a \n string.

To illustrate when you would need a non-default version for this parameter, imagine the difficult task of doing proper Fortran line wrapping. Here is a template that generates a Fortran function with a list of arguments:

func(args) ::= <<
       FUNCTION line( <args; separator=","> )

Given parameters a..f as the elements of the args list, you would get the following output:

       FUNCTION line( a,b,c,d,e,f )

But what if you wanted to wrap lines at a width of 30? Simply use toString(30) and specify that the expression should wrap using newline followed by six spaces followed by the 'c' character, which can be used as the continuation character:

func(args) ::= <<
       FUNCTION line( <args; wrap="\n      c", separator=","> )
       FUNCTION line( a,b,c,d,\n" +
      ce,f )

Similarly, if you want to break really long strings, use wrap="\"+\n \"", which emits a quote character followed by plus symbol followed by 4 spaces.

StringTemplate properly tracks newlines in the text omitted by your templates so that it can avoid emitting wrap strings right after your template has emitted a newline. StringTemplate also looks at your wrap string to find the (sole) \n character. Wrap strings are of the form A\nB and StringTemplate emits A\n first and then spits out the indentation as required by auto-indentation and then finally B. Again, imagine, the list of characters to emit, but now consider that the expression has been indented:

duh(chars) ::= <<
  <chars; wrap>

With the same input a..e and toString(4), you would see the following output:


What if the expression is not indented with whitespace but has some text to the left? Consider dumping out an array of numbers as a Java array definition:

array(values) ::= <<
int[] a = { <values; wrap, separator=","> };

With numbers


this template will emit (at width 40):

int[] a = { 3,9,20,2,1,4,6,32,5,6,77,888,
32,5,6,77,888,1,6,32,5 };

While correct, that is not particularly beautiful code. What you really want, is for the numbers to line up with the start of the expression; in this case under the first "3". to do this, use the anchor option, which means StringTemplate should line up all wrapped lines with left edge of expression when wrapping:

array(values) ::= <<
int[] a = { <values; wrap, anchor, separator=","> };

Adding that option generates the following output:

int[] a = { 3,9,20,2,1,4,6,32,5,6,77,888,
            5,6,77,888,1,6,32,5 };

One final complication. Sometimes you want to anchor the left edge of all wrapped lines in a position to the left of where the expression starts. For example what if you wanted to print out three literal values first such as "1,9,2"? Because StringTemplate can only anchor at expressions simply wrap the literals and your values expression in an embedded anonymous template (enclose them with <{...}>) and use the anchor on that embedded template:

data(a) ::= <<
int[] a = { <{1,9,2,<values; wrap, separator=",">}; anchor> };

That template yields the following output:

int[] a = { 1,9,2,3,9,20,2,1,4,
            1,4,6 };

If there is both an indentation and an anchor, StringTemplate chooses whichever is larger.

WARNING: separators and wrap values are templates and are evaluated once before multi-valued expressions are evaluated. You cannot change the wrap based on, for example, <i>.

Default values for wrap="\n", anchor="true" (any non-null value means anchor).

15. Output Filters

Output Filters

Version 2.0 introduced the notion of an StringTemplateWriter/IStringTemplateWriter. All text rendered from a template goes through one of these writers before being placed in the output buffer. Terence added this primarily for auto-indentation for code generation, but it also could be used to remove whitespace (as a compression) from HTML output. Most recently, in 2.3, Terence updated the interface to support automatic line wrapping. If you don't care about indentation, you can simply subclass AutoIndentWriter and override write()/Write():


public interface StringTemplateWriter {
    public static final int NO_WRAP = -1;

    void pushIndentation(String indent);

    String popIndentation();

    void pushAnchorPoint();

    void popAnchorPoint();

    void setLineWidth(int lineWidth);

    /** Write the string and return how many actual chars were written.
     *  With autoindentation and wrapping, more chars than length(str)
     *  can be emitted.  No wrapping is done.
    int write(String str) throws IOException;

    /** Same as write, but wrap lines using the indicated string as the
     *  wrap character (such as "\n").
    int write(String str, String wrap) throws IOException;

    /** Because we might need to wrap at a non-atomic string boundary
     *  (such as when we wrap in between template applications
     *   <data:{v|[<v>]}; wrap>) we need to expose the wrap string
     *  writing just like for the separator.
    public int writeWrapSeparator(String wrap) throws IOException;

    /** Write a separator.  Same as write() except that a \n cannot
     *  be inserted before emitting a separator.
    int writeSeparator(String str) throws IOException;


public interface IStringTemplateWriter 
    void PushIndentation(string indent);

    string PopIndentation();

    void Write(string str);


class StringTemplateWriter(object):
    NO_WRAP = -1
    def __init__(self):

    def pushIndentation(self, indent):
        raise NotImplementedError

    def popIndentation(self):
        raise NotImplementedError

    def pushAnchorPoint(self):
        raise NotImplementedError

    def popAnchorPoint(self):
        raise NotImplementedError

    def setLineWidth(self, lineWidth):
        raise NotImplementedError

    def write(self, str, wrap=None):
        raise NotImplementedError

    def writeWrapSeparator(self, wrap):
        raise NotImplementedError

    def writeSeparator(self, str):
        raise NotImplementedError

Here is a "pass through" writer that is already defined:


/** Just pass through the text */
public class NoIndentWriter extends AutoIndentWriter {
    public NoIndentWriter(Writer out) {

    public void write(String str) throws IOException {


/** Just pass through the text */
public class NoIndentWriter : AutoIndentWriter 
    public NoIndentWriter(TextWriter output) :base(output) 

    public void Write(string str)


class NoIndentWriter(stringtemplate3.AutoIndentWriter):
    """Just pass through the text"""
    def __init__(self, out):
        super(NoIndentWriter, self).__init__(out)

    def write(self, str):
        return len(str)

Use it like this:


StringWriter out = new StringWriter();
StringTemplateGroup group =
                new StringTemplateGroup("test");
group.defineTemplate("bold", "<b>$x$</b>");
StringTemplate nameST = new StringTemplate(group, "$name:bold(x=name)$");
nameST.setAttribute("name", "Terence");
// write to 'out' with no indentation
nameST.write(new NoIndentWriter(out));
System.out.println("output: "+out.toString());


StringWriter output = new StringWriter();
StringTemplateGroup group = new StringTemplateGroup("test");
group.DefineTemplate("bold", "<b>$x$</b>");
StringTemplate nameST = new StringTemplate(group, "$name:bold(x=name)$");
nameST.SetAttribute("name", "Terence");
// write to 'out' with no indentation
nameST.Write(new NoIndentWriter(output));
Console.Out.WriteLine("output: "+output.ToString());


out = StringIO()
group = stringtemplate3.StringTemplateGroup("test")
group.defineTemplate("bold", "<b>$x$</b>")
nameST = stringtemplate3.StringTemplate("$name:bold(x=name)$", group=group)
nameST["name"] = "Terence"
# write to 'out' with no indentation
print "output:", str(out)

Instead of using nameST.toString(), which calls write with a string write and returns its value, manually invoke write with your writer.

If you want to always use a particular output filter, then use


StringTemplateGroup.setStringTemplateWriter(Class userSpecifiedWriterClass);


StringTemplateGroup.SetStringTemplateWriter(Type userSpecifiedWriterClass);



The StringTemplate.toString() method is sensitive to the group's writer class.

16. Template and attribute lookup rules

Template lookup

When you request a named template via StringTemplateGroup.getInstanceOf() or within a template, there is a specific sequence used to locate the template.

If a template, t, references another template and t is not specifically associated with any group, t is implicitly associated with a default group whose root directory is ".", the current directory. The referenced template will be looked up in the current directory.

If a template t is associated with a group, but was not defined via a group file format, lookup a referenced template in the group's template table. If not there, look for it on the disk under the group's root dir. If not found, recursively look at any supergroup of the group. If not found at all, record this fact and don't look again on the disk until refresh interval.

If the template's associated group was defined via a group file, then that group is searched first. If not found, the template is looked up in any supergroup. The refresh interval is not used for group files because the group file is considered complete and enduring.

Attribute scoping rules

A StringTemplate is a list of chunks, text literals and attribute expressions, and an attributes table. To render a template to string, the chunks are written out in order; the expressions are evaluated only when asked to during rendering. Attributes referenced in expressions are looked up using a very specific sequence similar to an inheritance mechanism.

When you nest a template within another, such as when a page template references a searchbox template, the nested template may see any attributes of the enclosing instance or its enclosing instances. This mechanism is called dynamic scoping. Contrast this with lexical scoping used in most programming languages like C# and Java where a method may not see the variables defined in invoking methods. Dynamic scoping is very natural for templates. For example, if page has an attribute/value pair font/Times then searchbox could reference $font$ when nested within a page instance.

Reference to attribute a in template t is resolved as follows:

  1. Look in t's attribute table
  2. Look in t's arguments
  3. Look recursively up t's enclosing template instance chain
  4. Look recursively up t's group / supergroup chain for a map

This process is recursively executed until a is found or there are no more enclosing template instances or super groups.

When using a group file format to specify templates, you must specify the formal arguments for that template. If you try to access an attribute that is not formally defined in that template or an enclosing template, you will get a InvalidOperationException.

When building code generators with StringTemplate, large heavily nested template tree structures are commonplace and, due to dynamic attribute scoping, a nested template could inadvertently use an attribute from an enclosing scope. This could lead to infinite recursion during rendering and other surprises. To prevent this, formal arguments on template t hide any attribute value with that name in any enclosing scope. Here is a test case that illustrates the


String templates =
        "group test;" +newline+
        "block(stats) ::= \"{$stats$}\""
StringTemplateGroup group =
        new StringTemplateGroup(new StringReader(templates));
StringTemplate b = group.getInstanceOf("block");
b.setAttribute("stats", group.getInstanceOf("block"));
String expecting ="{{}}";


string templates =
        "group test;" +newline+
        "block(stats) ::= \"{$stats$}\""
StringTemplateGroup group = new StringTemplateGroup(new StringReader(templates));
StringTemplate b = group.GetInstanceOf("block");
b.SetAttribute("stats", group.GetInstanceOf("block"));
string expecting ="{{}}";


templates = (
    "group test;" + os.linesep +
    "block(stats) ::= \"{$stats$}\""
group = stringtemplate3.StringTemplateGroup(file=StringIO(templates), lexer='default')
b = group.getInstanceOf("block")
b["stats"] = group.getInstanceOf("block")
expecting ="{{}}"

Even though block has a stats value that refers to itself, there is no recursion because each instance of block hides the stats value from above since stats is a formal argument.

Sometimes self-recursive (hence infinitely recursive) structures occur through programming error and they are nasty to track down. If you turn on "lint mode", StringTemplate will attempt to find cases where a template instance is being evaluated during the evaluation of itself. For example, here is a test case that causes and traps infinite recursion.


String templates =
        "group test;" +newline+
        "block(stats) ::= \"$stats$\"" +
        "ifstat(stats) ::= \"IF true then $stats$\"\n"
StringTemplateGroup group =
        new StringTemplateGroup(new StringReader(templates));
StringTemplate b = group.getInstanceOf("block");
StringTemplate ifstat = group.getInstanceOf("ifstat");
b.setAttribute("stats", ifstat); // block has if stat
ifstat.setAttribute("stats", b); // but make the "if" contain block
try {
    String result = b.toString();
catch (IllegalStateException ise) {


string templates =
        "group test;" +newline+
        "block(stats) ::= \"$stats$\"" +
        "ifstat(stats) ::= \"IF true then $stats$\"\n"
StringTemplateGroup group = new StringTemplateGroup(new StringReader(templates));
StringTemplate b = group.GetInstanceOf("block");
StringTemplate ifstat = group.GetInstanceOf("ifstat");
b.SetAttribute("stats", ifstat); // block has if stat
ifstat.SetAttribute("stats", b); // but make the "if" contain block
try {
    string result = b.ToString();
catch (InvalidOperationException ise) {


templates = (
    "group test;" + os.linesep +
    "block(stats) ::= \"$stats$\"" + os.linesep +
    "ifstat(stats) ::= \"IF true then $stats$\"\n"
stringtemplate3.lintMode = True
group = stringtemplate3.StringTemplateGroup(file=StringIO(templates), lexer="default")
b = group.getInstanceOf("block")
ifstat = group.getInstanceOf("ifstat")
b["stats"] = ifstat      # block has if stat
ifstat["stats"] = b      # but make the "if" contain block
    result = str(b)
except stringtemplate3.language.ASTExpr.IllegalStateException, exc:
    # do something

The nested template stack trace from exception object will be similar to:

infinite recursion to <ifstat([stats])@4> referenced in <block([stats])@3>; stack trace:
<ifstat([stats])@4>, attributes=[stats=<block()@3>]>
<block([stats])@3>, attributes=[stats=<ifstat()@4>], references=[stats]>
<ifstat([stats])@4> (start of recursive cycle)

17. StringTemplate Grammars

StringTemplate Grammars

StringTemplate has multiple grammars that describe templates at varying degrees of detail. At the grossest level of granularity, the group.g grammar accepts a list of templates with formal template arguments. Each of these templates is broken up into chunks of literal text and attribute expressions via template.g. The default lexer uses $...$ delimiters, but the angle.bracket.template.g lexer provides <...> delimiters. Each of the attribute expression chunks is processed by action.g. It builds trees (ASTs) representing the operation indicated in the expression. These ASTs
represent the "precompiled" templates, which are evaluated by the tree grammar eval.g each time a StringTemplate is rendered to string with ToString().

The grammar files are:

  • group.g: read a group file full of templates
  • template.g: break an individual template into chunks
  • angle.bracket.template.g: <...> template lexer
  • action.g: parse attribute expressions into ASTs
  • eval.g: evaluate expression ASTs during ToString()

Anything outside of the StringTemplate start/stop delimiters is ignored.

A word about Strings. Strings are double-quoted with optional embedded escaped characters that are translated (escapes are not translated outside of strings; for example, text outside of attribute expressions do not get escape chars translated except \$, \< and \>).

    :   '"' (ESC_CHAR | ~'"')* '"'

The translated escapes are:

    :   '\\'
        (   'n'
        |   'r'
        |   't'
        |   'b'
        |   'f'
        |   '"'
        |   '\\'

but other escapes are allowed and ignored.

Please see the actual grammar files for the formal language specification of StringTemplate's various components.

18. Debugging


Debugging complex and nested StringTemplate trees can be challenging. Kay Roepke is building a graphical interface similar to ANTLRWorks for StringTemplate but until then you have a number of tools that you can use.

You can ask for the enclosing template structure with StringTemplate.getEnclosingInstanceStackString() and can get the entire structure with toStructureString() that does not print the values but shows the nested structure with the attribute names.

If for some reason StringTemplate goes into an infinite loop when you try to render a template, you probably have a circular reference in your template containment hierarchy. Turning on lint mode with StringTemplate.setLintMode() will check for these cyclic references and a number of other features. This will slow down template rendering so only use this during debugging.

Added StringTemplate. getDOTForDependencyGraph() a DOT diagram showing edges from n->m where template n contains template m. It finds all direct template invocations too like <foo()> but not indirect ones like <(name)()>. This is done statically and hence StringTemplate cannot see runtime arg values on statically included templates. You get a template back that lets you reset node shape, fontsize, width, height attributes. Use removeAttribute before setting so you are sure you only get one value.

Perhaps the most potent debugging tool you have for unraveling the complex structures emitted from nested StringTemplate containment hierarchies is the use of start and stop tags that marked the beginning and end of the text generated from a particular template. Method StringTemplateGroup.emitDebugStartStopStrings() indicates whether StringTemplate should emit <templatename>...</templatename> output for templates from this group. This easily answers an important question: "what template emitted a particular piece of text in the output?" In many cases you will not want every single template to have those tags in the output. For example, in the ANTLR code generator, there is a template that indicates what the output file extension is. Clearly one does not want the file extension to have the debugging information has the code generator could not open a file with those angle brackets and so on. Here's the snippet from the code generator:


Sometimes you use or define templates improperly. Either you set an attribute that is not used or forget to set one or reference the wrong template etc... The following code snippets enable Java and C# to display template hierarchies in a tree view.


I have made a toy visualization tool via that shows both the attributes and the way StringTemplate breaks up your template into chunks. It properly handles StringTemplate objects as attributes and other nested structures. Here is the way to launch a Swing frame to view your template:

StringTemplate st = ...;
StringTemplateTreeView viz = new StringTemplateTreeView("sample",st);

Here is an example display:


The StringTemplateViewer project is a basic visualization tool that shows both the attributes and the way StringTemplate breaks up your template into chunks. It properly handles StringTemplate objects as attributes and other nested structures. Here is the way to launch a StringTemplateTreeView form to view your template:

StringTemplate st = ...;
StringTemplateTreeView stForm = new StringTemplateTreeView("StringTemplateTreeView Example", st);

Here is a snapshot. The display is associated with the fill-a-table example below.

The StringTemplateViewer tool for StringTemplate visualization is an alpha quality release. Expect all the usual problems associated with alpha quality code.

19. Python Notes

Some notes about the Python port of StringTemplate V3.1.

StringTemplate upto V2.2 has been ported by Marq Kole. The update to V3.1 has been implemented by Benjamin Niemann.

Changes from V2.2

During the update to V3.1 I took the deliberate freedom to change some of the APIs breaking backwards compatibility. The package has been renames to stringtemplate3, so installing it will not break any code that relies on the V2.x API.

While V2.x tried to be as close to the Java API as possible, I tried to get rid of most Java-isms as possible for V3.1. There may be more differences between the Java and the Python API than documented here, but you are unlikely to stumble upon these, unless you do some really nasty hacks.

Use of keyword arguments

Some methods that make extensive use of overloading in Java use keyword arguments in Python.

StringTemplate constructor:

StringTemplate(template=None, group=None, lexer=None, attributes=None)

StringTemplateGroup constructor:

StringTemplateGroup(name=None, rootDir=None, lexer=None, file=None, errors=None, superGroup=None)

You may either use StringTemplateGroup(name=..., rootDir=...) or StringTemplateGroup(file=...) adding lexer, errors and superGroup attributes as needed.
lexer may be either a lexer class (stringtemplate3.language.DefaultTemplateLexer.Lexer, stringtemplate3.language.AngleBracketLexer.Lexer or your own implementation) or one of the strings "default" and "angle-bracket".


StringTemplateGroup.getInstanceOf(name, enclosingInstance=None, attributes=None)

Deprecated use of getter/setter methods

Python is not Java (wink)
While getter and setter methods that mimic the Java API exist, they will spit out warnings when used. These warnings can be disabled with

import warnings
warnings.simplefilter('ignore', DeprecationWarning)

Although the preferred solution is of course not to use these methods, but access the attributes directly.

deprecated methods

preferred attribute



































































Static methods

Some static methods have been turned into module level functions. Most of these are only internally used, the only user visible change should be:




stringtemplate3.lintMode = ...

20. Acknowledgements


Please see

About This Document

  • Origin of this document: To ensure freshness, the contents of this page are automatically assembled (when you request this page) from the individual articles listed in the "Individual topic pages" box in the Table of Contents.
    • The "Individual topic pages" part of the TOC is included from a master TOC page, so is somewhat authoritative. However, the "Combined on this page" part of the TOC, and the selection of article "include"s are both maintained manually, so could get out of step if articles are added, renamed etc. You can at least see whether the two TOCs are in step by visual comparison.
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  • Printing tip: You can print using the plain old browser Print function, possibly after viewing Print Preview. However, you might be better served with a PDF:
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    • The wiki has an "Export to PDF" command on the Tools menu - but it's a bit of a work-in-progress, so inspect the PDF before firing up the printer.
    • I (GW) had good luck from FireFox 3 (Windows) using Print to the Adobe PDF driver (supplied by Acrobat). This formatted with reduced font size, thus fewer pages.